Thursday, September 3, 2020

Top 5 internet privacy myths about social media debunked Term Paper

Top 5 web security fantasies about web-based social networking exposed - Term Paper Example To begin with, a few online interpersonal organizations brief the clients to give honest data about their personality. For instance, Facebook, which as of now the most prominently utilized interpersonal organization site on the planet, permits clients to give nitty gritty data concerning who they are on the profile page. Regardless of this necessity, Facebook has pulled in an enormous number of clients implying that numerous individuals wouldn't fret sharing such close to home data. Nonetheless, there have been a few situations where interpersonal organization clients give bogus data concerning their character, something that has not been decidedly gotten by other informal organization clients. Of more centrality, honest distinguishing proof of interpersonal organization clients is useful to the webhost organizations. Notwithstanding the way that distinctive interpersonal organization sites give differing protection levels to their clients, a large number of these social organizations urge their customers to give honest data concerning themselves to the level they can be alright with. For instance, when utilizing facebook, one can select not to fill the whole data mentioned for in the profile page. By empowering individuals from interpersonal organizations to give honest data, webhost organizations have had the option to successfully deal with the methods of direct of individuals in their informal community sites. This is on the grounds that individuals will in general depict a positive picture to the open when they can be effectively recognized by others. Moreover, legitimate and honest recognizable proof in interpersonal interaction sites has been upheld by different enactments that try to shield general society from destructive exercises did in informal organizations. Much of the time, individuals with vindictive goals like to mask their personality to the general population so as to diminish their odds of being recognized without any problem. For instance, individuals with bogus recognizable proof in online interpersonal interaction destinations don't think that its hard to

Thursday, August 27, 2020

Solar Energy Installation Project Management

Presentation Establishment of sustainable power source assets to check a dangerous atmospheric devation is accepting tremendous help from a dominant part of the legislatures (Atkinson 2001). Atkinson claims, â€Å"People have utilized non-sustainable wellsprings of vitality like coal and oil for a long time† (2001, p. 45).Advertising We will compose a custom proposition test on Solar Energy Installation Project Management explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More These sources have essentially added to the outflow of ozone harming substances, provoking the countries to search for elective wellsprings of vitality. The sun has end up being the sole wellspring of vitality that doesn't add to ecological contamination. Additionally, the wellspring of vitality is boundless and normally obtained. What’s more, the expense of sun oriented force keeps on going down the same number of individuals value its utilization in the general public (Ghosh et al. 2002). It unde rlines the explanation numerous organizations and family units are introducing sun oriented boards in their structures. Undertaking Overview Countries like India have additionally settled â€Å"grid associated sun based photovoltaic force frameworks as a major aspect of their activity plan for atmosphere change† (Goletsis, Psarras Samouilidis 2003, p.139). Numerous sun based vitality ventures are in progress as nations react to the call for natural preservation. The sun is a brilliant wellspring of vitality, yet numerous individuals have not exploited. The sun emanates the greater part of its vitality as warmth and light, which can be bridled and changed over into different types of vitality for different utilizations (Haapasalo, Ingalsuo Lenkkeri 2006). Some time in the past, individuals utilized sun powered capacity to keep warm. They could utilize sun oriented vitality to light a fire and warm themselves. Afterward, a few people concocted inactive sun oriented vitality int ends to keep their homes warm. They assembled their homes so that the floors and dividers could ingest heat vitality from the sun and discharge it during the night. With time, individuals discovered that the sun could go about as a basic wellspring of vitality. In 1839, researchers found photovoltaic, which was a discovery throughout the entire existence of mankind. As per Haralambopoulos and Polatidis, photovoltaic (sun based) cells are â€Å"large-region semiconductors that convert daylight legitimately into electricity† (2003, p. 967). Photovoltaics can be utilized in various contraptions, which incorporate satellites, watches, media transmission gadgets and in adding machines. Photovoltaics are not generally utilized in light of the fact that they are over the top expensive. In any case, the decrease in cost of vitality influence should make photovoltaics affordable. Changes in worldwide fuel cost have prompted numerous associations losing a great deal of money.Advertis ing Looking for proposition on venture the board? How about we check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Adoption of sun powered vitality would go far towards sparing the nations and organizations from costs credited to the vitality emergency. The way that sunlight based vitality is limitless makes it the most dependable wellspring of vitality for business and countries everywhere (Kendrick 2009). It is claimed that the accessible oil stores will just continue the world for at most 40 years. It suggests that nations should search for elective wellsprings of vitality before the oil holds get depleted. Sun based force is unlimited, which makes it the following wellspring of vitality that nations are probably going to adopt. The target of sunlight based vitality establishment venture is to guarantee that families get the most required light and warmth vitality. It is difficult to run local errands without light and warmth vitality in the houses. T herefore, introducing sun oriented boards would go far to encourage local obligations. The venture intends to outfit 1000 family units with sun oriented boards before six months' over. The establishment will be the primary period of the task. Another target of the task is to incorporate families into the worldwide battle on natural preservation. Homes, add to natural contamination using nonrenewable wellsprings of vitality like coal and oil. Introducing sun oriented force would bring down the pace of natural contamination connected to family units. This task covers 3000 houses from the edges of London. Larger part of the families outside the city of London depend on electric vitality provided by the legislature. The undertaking expects to outfit all the family units with sun powered force before the finish of one and a half years. The venture won't include non-administrative associations and open offices that may be found in the district that the undertaking covers. It will carefull y concentrate on local households. One of the project’s expectations is the foundation of legitimate strategies to encourage establishment of the sun powered boards. The other deliverable is the establishment of sun powered force framework in two families to show the authenticity of the venture in edges of London. The task wants to urge the general public to hold onto sun powered vitality as the main wellspring of vitality that is feasible and doesn't add to natural contamination. Work breakdown structure Kerzner asserts, â€Å"Success of venture the executives depends, to a critical degree, on the manager’s capacity to viably determine the work substance of the undertaking regarding its exercises and deliverables† (2009, p. 113). One of the instruments of arranging and dealing with the exercises of an undertaking is work breakdown structure (WBS).Advertising We will compose a custom proposition test on Solar Energy Installation Project Management explicitly f or you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kerzner charges, â€Å"The work breakdown structure distinguishes and bunches the venture components in a manner that characterizes the general scope of the project† (2004, p. 75). Each lower level of the structure represents a logically progressively point by point meaning of a task part (Kerzner 2004). The constituents might be in type of merchandise or administrations. As such, the work breakdown structure is â€Å"a various leveled portrayal of the work substance, whereby the venture is isolated into dynamically littler components. The components found at the most reduced degree of the order are known as work packages† (Rogers et al. 2008, p. 4219). The accomplishment of the venture lies in the capacity of the task administrator to precisely recognize, arrange and run each work bundle. The whole work requires being separated into various progressive exercises that work soundly to accomplish the general objectives of the ta sk (Solangi et al. 2011). The figure beneath speaks to the elevated level arranging work process of sun oriented vitality framework establishment. Appraisal report will include dissecting and giving an account of the vitality framework that the homes are right now utilizing to distinguish its benefits and bad marks. The report will give a point by point record of how the current force framework adds to ecological contamination just as it wastefulness (Cleland 2002). The aggregation of evaluation report will run simultaneously with a pilot venture planned for deciding practicality of the proposed venture. The pilot undertaking will assist the supervisors with determining if the task will work. Additionally, it will assist the administrators with understanding how the general public will react to the undertaking. The achievement of any undertaking relies upon how it is gotten by the objective populace. Preceding revealing the task, it is basic to direct a pilot venture to comprehend i ts reception. The appraisal report will help the undertaking administrators to have clear data about the venture. It will help them to assess and contrast the expense of the undertaking with its benefits.Advertising Searching for proposition on venture the executives? How about we check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Find out More In addition, the report will give an unmistakable territorial information yield investigation, which is fundamental for the chiefs to know whether the venture will be of critical advantage to the general public. The sun oriented establishment venture isn't just planned to assist the network with cutting down on ecological contamination, however it is likewise intended to assist the country with reducing its vitality cost. Subsequently, one of the work bundles of the venture will be to recognize the current vitality administration organization (ESCO) charging structures and concoct a database for the equivalent. The database will be vital while deciding the vitality charging structure to adopt. Another task that the establishment venture will cover will do a review of the vitality sparing chances. One method of decreasing vitality cost is lessening the pace of vitality utilization. In addition, it is basic to bring down the pace of vitality utilization for sun powered vitality to be sufficient. The review will assist the supervisors with identifying potential methods of boosting the utilization of sun based vitality. Plus, they will recognize the accessible choices of sun based force ventures and settle for the most proficient. Work breakdown word reference ID Task name Description Duration Start Finish 1.0 Assessment report The report gives a record of the accessible vitality framework and its expenses. It archives how the current force framework adds to natural contamination. 20 days Jan 10 ‘15 Jan 30 ‘15 1.1 Costs/Benefits examination A cost/benefits investigation will be hurried to think about the current and proposed vitality frameworks. The examination will distinguish the current ESCO charging structure, conceivable elective charging structures and set up a database for a similar 20 days Feb 2 ‘15 Feb 22 ‘15 1.2 Identify vitality sparing open doors A field study will be led to decide how the families use vitality and think of mea sures to spare vitality. On location vitality evaluation will be done, and a vitality audit completed. 20 days Feb 25 ‘15 Mar 17 ‘15 2.0 Pilot sunlight based vitality venture Managers will run a pilot task to decide the achievability of the undertaking. The pilot undertaking will help to

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Essay Topics on Outsiders Perspective

Essay Topics on Outsiders PerspectiveThere are many reasons that students might want to write an essay on the outsider's perspective. Some students may feel that writing an essay on the outsider's perspective can be a challenging task because the vast majority of the textbooks and most of the teachers are won't to focus more on the viewpoints of the leaders in the society.The young people who have been brought up in the mindset of the present day, when they were much younger find it almost impossible to imagine a life where the education has not reached every one of the segments of the society. But it is a fact that some of the young people do start to talk about the outside world while others find it difficult to accept the idea of the outsider's view of things.There are many who feel that in order to have an open mind, the outsider's view is required. When the outsider's view comes into the picture, the world starts to look different to them. There are many problems that one will c ome across during the times when you reach the outsiders view, the environment also gets very confusing at times.If you are wondering what are the outsiders perspective, the two most important things are tolerance and ignorance. Both these can be expressed in a very pleasant manner by those who belong to the society who lead an open mind.A good example can be given here that tolerance can be expressed by raising your fist in the air. This means that all of the arguments are valid, no matter how many or how strong the arguments are. This will mean that the main reason behind the event should be accepted and the others should just be forgotten and the event should be forgotten as well.Those who are the outcasts can also express themselves by adopting an approach of thought that is tolerant towards those who are living in the society who do not have any right to their opinions. It is true that if someone is an outcast then he is totally rejected from the society but that does not mean that he is not being treated with dignity.By applying this intolerance towards the outcasts, we can say that we respect the person who is living in the society. It is only when we have respect for ourselves, we can take others into consideration and our opinion will be accepted by the society.This is the first tip for writing the essay topics on the outsider's perspective. It is an extremely important tip for writing the essay topics because only with such an attitude we can become an ideal open-minded society. Only such a society where no one is treated badly and everyone is treated with dignity.

Essay Sample: Why Is This College a Good Fit For You?

Essay Sample: Why Is This College a Good Fit For You?For those who are looking to find essays samples, there are many which can be used. Online essay samples can be found in many different ways, one way is through word of mouth, the second is by seeking out articles that offer them for free. It is essential that you get a few high quality essay samples before you go into a reading or work session.Most people will look to see if the college or university they are going to be giving free online essay samples as a way of promoting their school. There are many options, though some you may have to pay for. If you are going to use free samples, you can't be sure of the quality. However, you can be sure that the college or university has a strong history and reputation behind it and that they have been around for a while.Also, it's important to note that for you to write a good essay online, you will need to have a good idea of grammar and how to present your thoughts. You will want to take the time to check your grammar, spelling, and punctuation, as well as any other elements that you may find important. You will also want to focus on the academic standards and goals of the college or university in which you are writing an essay for.For you to be able to get the best essay samples, you will need to be aware of the formatting guidelines. For example, if you're using the services of a company that offers essay samples to colleges and universities, you will need to make sure that the essays they provide you use the same format. You will also need to ensure that the work is consistent with the rest of the company's sample essays.There are several companies which offer quality college essay samples which are completely free of charge. What is very important is that they will allow you to edit the essay and even have it proofread for you before you pay for the essay. This will ensure that you get high quality and easily accessible essays for your college papers and projec ts.There are also a few benefits to getting high quality essay samples for your college essays. Not only will you get the high quality materials that you need, but you'll also be saving money as you won't have to pay for the high quality materials which are typically very expensive. With these types of resources, you can really have a lot of fun with your college or university essays and will help you with your projects.One of the best benefits of using essay samples is that they are available to everyone and can be used in all levels of English classes. The material will be relevant to your classes and therefore give you the chance to apply what you learn. A good way to test yourself and see if you have what it takes to write a good essay is to check out these resources, which can be found on many different websites.Whether you are attending college for the first time or are starting college for the first time, using essay samples will give you the ability to see what you are doing wrong and to see if you're on the right track. Many people take college for granted because they think that you have to read hundreds of books and spend countless hours learning material. But in reality, you only need to take a few classes and practice and write.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Why CanT People Feed Themselves Essays - Social Philosophy

For what reason Can'T People Feed Themselves? Individuals can't take care of themselves since they are imbecilic. The creators name imperialism as the focal wellspring of overall starvation. Frances Moore Lappe and Joseph Collins use a great many realities trying to communicate how extraordinary the circumstance was and is. They suggest that the inception of starvation in such zones as Africa and Viet Nam are because of the colonization procedure, which constrained the locals to quit developing food plants and spotlight exclusively on money crops. The piece attacked the colonizing nations by illustrating misusing the local individuals and compelling them to depend on imported staples with goals of driving up costs on imports while stifling the expenses of fares. Which thusly makes the starvation. A few governments imparted manors and subjugation and it appears that the administrations went to crazy intends to ensure that the locals needed to depend on ranch compensation. ?Ranches usurped a large portion of the great land, either making a big deal about the provincial populace landless or pushing them onto peripheral soils. (However the ranches have frequently held quite a bit of their property inactive essentially to keep the workers from utilizing it ? indeed, even right up 'til the present time. Del Monte claims 57,000 sections of land of Guatemala yet plants just 9,000.? (Lappe and Collins pg 176). Collins and Lappe much of the time allude to these countries as ?immature?, instead of calling them lacking. They utilize this word so as to show that these individuals are not crude creatures; there are sure territories in their general public that should be created instead of their general public all in all. These underdevelopments were built by the colonizers, and could be fixed in time if free enterprise wasn't the predominant religion of the world. Individuals have become increasingly more voracity driven from the beginning of time, and this article shows only one of the numerous covetousness driven insensitive exercises of present day western culture. I think in the event that anything is at fault the fleece free enterprise has pulled over the eyes of the blessed. Subsequently, we overlook all the exercises of the past and proceed down the way to our definitive implosion. Human sciences

Vignette Response Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Vignette Response - Essay Example The moral contemplations of directing somebody who has come needing assistance are put to task when an individual from a gathering accepts that the individual needing assistance is a peril to the general network. So as to best address the issues introduced by this situation, they should be isolated for their individual needs and the reactions for which they require. The principal issue confronting the advisor in this circumstance is the means by which to help pioneer X manage his trouble with web erotic entertainment. In managing this issue, the strategies through which the advising happens must be aimed at the wagers conceivable result for the customer. The second issue that is being confronted is worried about the desire that pioneer Y has that individual data concerning pioneer X is applicable to the exhibition of pioneer X’s administration and ability inside the congregation. This worry recommends that noteworthy the individual data about pioneer X is the game-plan that pi oneer Y has generally expected. In any case, moral concerns must be tended to and thought about when making an effort not to uncover data about pioneer X. ... The way to deciding whether the conduct is pathology of a conduct is through the measure of power over the conduct the customer can display (Franklin and Fong 41). In this theoretical, it must be accepted that the customer has lost his capacity to control his conduct since he is permitting it to influence his connections. Another part of an obsessive conduct towards sex is that it may show a need to isolate from closeness with a life partner. As per Franklin and Fong â€Å"Sexual carrying on is a factor of the addict’s dejection and anger† (41). The view of an absence of control is regularly an indication of being at war inside the brain, the need to agitator and proceed with the conduct in struggle with the need to stop the conduct and face whatever issue has prompted this pathology. One of the principal strategies for guiding somebody who has built up a sexual pathology is through discovering the center issues that have prompted this partition from closeness. It is co nceivable that this detachment happened some time before marriage or the pathology started. In this way, psychotherapy can be helpful in getting deeply of the explanations for the conduct (Roukema 176). One of the most significant types of psychotherapy that can be recommended to pioneer X is that he become a piece of gathering treatment. As per Cairnes and Adams, bunch treatment has indicated a lot of accomplishment in managing issue of sexual habit. While there is no complete research with regards to why it works, it is accepted that a progression of human encounters, including yet not restricted to the instillation of expectation, comprehensiveness, giving of data, unselfishness, and the reiteration of the family gathering, can prompt viable help from the need to enjoy the

Thursday, June 11, 2020

Assets Of Commercial Bank In Nepal - Free Essay Example

The aim of this project is to assess the level of non-performing assets and its repercussions in overall financial stability of commercial bank in Nepal through the comparison between proper Nepali bank and the joint venture bank. The specific objectives are : To determine the extent to which commercial banks face potential financial instability because of non-performing assets. To identify the mechanisms by which commercial banks control non-performing assets. To identify successful and unsuccessful measures in relation to recover and mobilization of non-performing assets of commercial bank. To find out Whether or not Nepalese Commercial Banks are following rules and regulations of NRB (Nepal Rastra Bank) regarding their lending, especially to maintain the provision for NPA? To enumerate and examine the level of NPA to total assets, total lending and total deposit of these two commercial banks. To identify the internal and external factors affecting on the growth of NPA? To identify the effects of Non-Performing Assets on ROA and ROE of these two commercial banks. To identify which bank has high level of non- performing assets To make recommendations as to how commercial banks might improve their efforts in relation to minimization of non-performing assets. These objectives will be achieved by addressing the following research questions: Which bank, proper nepali bank or joint venture bank, is actively seeking to minimize risks of non-performing assets? When did non-performing assets start showing impacts in the bank? What resources do the banks devote to control non-performing assets? Who decides on this resource allocation? How do banks seek to control non-performing assets? Is non-performing asset increasing amongst banks? What is the degree of increment of non-performing asset in proper Nepali commercial bank and joint venture bank? What percentage of total assets and total lending is occupying by NPAs of Nepalese commercial banks? How does non-performing assets effects on return on total assets (ROA) and shareholdersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ equity (ROE). What are major internal factors, external factors and other main causes to growth of NPA? To compare the percentage of non-performing assets of these commercial banks in different time period. Which measure (or measures) in particular has been effective in curbing non-performing assets of commercial banks? What factors contribute to a successful management of non-performing assets? Are increased non-performing assets retaining provisions considered to be good news for all banks or only for particular banks? Do the valuation implications of non-performing assets vary across banks? The Context and Background of the Proposal: The proposal is to concentrate on two commercial banks of Nepal: Rastriya Banijya Bank (a proper Nepali bank) and Everest Bank Limited (a joint venture bank); RBB and EBL respectively in acronyms. These are the two main banks operating in the banking industry in the expanding economy of Nepal. Rastriya Banijya Bank (RBB) is fully government owned, and the largest commercial bank in Nepal. RBB was established on January 23, 1966 (2022 Magh 10 BS) under the RBB Act. Now, the bank is running under bank and financial institute act 2063. RBB has been contributing to socio-economic development of the country for the last four and half decades. The Bank has currently entered into 46 years of service. RBB provides various banking services to a wide range of customers;  they include elite to poor individuals, institutional customers, and the customers  from industry / business communities. RBB has many correspondent arrangements with major international banks all over the world that facilitate trade finance, bank-originated personal funds transfers and interbank funds transfer. The bank has played crucial role for the development of financial sector i.e. bank, insurance companies through its promoterà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s role. As a second commercial bank of the country, the bank has been contributing in the trade, industry and agricultural sector of the country. The bank has also contributed in the hydropower sector. Health and Education sector are also benefitted through its disbursement. As a government owned bank the bank is also contributing towards achieving national goals as per the government directives. The bank has made significant contribution in the development of private sector either by loan disbursement or  by active participation in the fairs organized by industrial and business communities. A leading commercial bank of Nepal established in the year 1994 in joint venture with Punjab National Bank, India, Everest Bank Limited (EBL) started its operation with a view and objective of extending professionalized and efficient banking services to various segments of the society. Punjab National Bank (PNB), EBLà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s joint venture partner (holding 20% equity in the bank) is the largest nationalized bank in India. With its presence virtually in all the important centres at Nepal, EBL offers a wide variety of banking services which include corporate and personal banking, industrial finance, agricultural finance, financing of trade and international banking. The large presence and vast resource base have helped the Bank to build strong links with trade and industry. These two banks make for an interesting comparison since they are both leading commercial banks with large number of clients, covering a diverse range of commercial sectors. They both share the bad news associated with increased provisions, preempted by loan default and increases in non-performing loans. The bad news in loan loss provisions is most likely to occur when fourth quarter audits correct under-provisioning relative to increases in non-performing loans during the first three quarters of the fiscal year which found the common victim in RBB and EBL. In contrast to EBL, the bad news stems from management exercising power over loan-loss provisions and their engagement in protection of larger numbers of defaulters in RBB. The disclosure of RBB as having more potential threats of increase in non-performing assets to EBL is hugely credited to the flexibility for efficient contracting provisions. At the time when economic activities are growing rapidly throughout the country, it is most uphill task for the banks to manage and curb non-performing assets. Moreover, political instability has resulted in more cases of commercial loans defaulting. Interestingly, consumer loans are hardly non-performing given to the rise of middleclass and service industry. But this trend differs in both EBL and RBB. This study purposes to underscore the importance of management of non-performing assets of RBB and EBL while comparing the provisions and their outcome in banking sector. Preliminary Literature Review Investment theory defines non-performing asset as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“a debt obligation where the borrower has not  paid  any  previously agreed upon  interest and principal repayments to the designated lender for an extended period of time.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? The non-performing asset is therefore not yielding any income to the lender in the form of principal and interest payments. Non-performing asset has become the major problem in investment banking since the inception of banking service itself. Literature devoted to the cause and effect of non-performing assets of banks concentrates mainly over the consequence and overall impact on the systematic wellbeing of bank due to the rise of non-performing assets. In the article à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Differential Valuation Implications of Loan Loss Provisions across Banks and Fiscal Quartersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? Chi-Chun Liu(1997) concentrates over the impact of loan loss provisions in market: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Prior research finds that, on average, the market reacts positively to loan loss provisions conditional on less discretionary information about loan default, such as non-performing loans and loan write-offsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (133). Liuà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s finding holds across different model specifications and study periods, despite radical changes in the banking industry over time. Liu finds that loan loss provisions are good news only for banks with loan portfolios that contain a high proportion of loans for which loss provisions require judgment and discretion on a loan-by-loan basis (e.g., commercial loans) rather than using statistical methods (e.g., consumer loans). A substantial body of research sought to confirm managementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s role regarding loan default. James M. Wahlenà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s(1994) study in à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“The Nature of Information in Commercial Bank Loan Loss Disclosuresà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? suggests that loan loss provisions are to be à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“maintained at levels considered adequate to reflect managements expectations of future lossesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? because à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“managers have private information regarding default risks inherent in the loan portfolioà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (455). Wahlen finds that managerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s judgment is necessary in estimating the loan loss provision each period. Wahlen further contends, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“It is prohibitively costly for investors and monitors to obtain all of managements information about the loan portfolio each period . . . [Thus] bank managers can exercise discretion over the timing of provisions for certain loan lossesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (456). Wahlen examines the relations b etween unexpected loan loss provisions and both stock returns and changes in future cash flows, and the role of managers in handling non-performing assets, in his study. Similarly, Iftekhar Hasan and Stephen D. Smith (1997) have argued that traditional view in profitability of banking institutions does not comprehend recently developing market trends. The duo has empirically investigated the alternative hypothesis using overall profit measures: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“the negative price-concentration relationship does not hold over the entire range of observed market concentrationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (47). They have focused on the impact of concentration and efficiency measures using price data for individual products and services. Jackson (1992) suggests that any generalization of such statements since price-concentration measures may vary substantially across time periods. Recently, in a comprehensive study, Berger and Hannan (1993) found more support for the structure-conduct-performance hypothesis than for the relative-market-power and/or efficient structure hypothesis. While concentrating over the role of banking sector in fetching the great depression of 1930s in America, Adam B. Ashcraft(2005) analyses the implication of non-performing assets in overall macroeconomic scenario in the article à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Are Banks Really Special? New Evidence from the FDIC-Induced Failure of Healthy Banks.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? Ashcraft contends that severe contraction in banks results from uncontrolled lending. He writes: While there is some disagreement in the literature over the precise mechanism through which failure affects real activity it is hard to walk away without the conclusion that bank failures played an important macroeconomic role in the severity of the economic downturn. What are the possible mechanisms? The most direct effect is through the loss of real wealth by uninsured depositors and other creditors. Even in the absence of a wealth effect, however, the creditors of a failed bank lose liquidity while they wait for assets to be liquidated, which in turn affects real spending in the presence of borrowing constraints. (1712) Ashcraft observes that when a bank fails, some long-standing relationships with its customers are disrupted, if not destroyed. If customers are unable to replace these relationships with other lenders on equal terms, this contraction in the supply of bank credit has an effect on real activity. And finally, there is the threat of contagion, where the failure of one institution prompts a run on other banks, spreading the effect of failure throughout the economy. Literature related to non-performing assets and the Indian experience provides the glimpse of Asian economy and challenges of banking industry. Prashanth K Reddy(2002) makes a comparative study of Asian banking industry in à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“A comparative study of Non Performing Assets in India in the Global context similarities and dissimilarities, remedial measures.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? Reddy stresses the importance of a sound understanding of the macro economic variables and systemic issues pertaining to banks and the economy for solving the NPA problem along with the criticality of a strong legal framework and legislative framework. Reddy contends: Concerns have been raised about their relevance to India. A significant percentage of the NPAs of the PSBà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s are in the priority sector. Loans in rural areas are difficult to collect and banks by virtue of their sheer reach are better placed to recover these loans. Lok Adalats and Debt Recovery Tribunals are other effective mechanism to handle this task. ARCs should focus on the larger borrowers. Further, there is a need for private sector and foreign participation in the ARC. Private parties will look to active resolution of the problem and not merely regard it as a book transaction. Moving NPAs to an ARC doesnt get rid of the problem. Actions and measures have to be taken to build investor confidence. (12) Reddy stresses on the need to analyze foreign experiences that must be utilized along with a clear understanding of the local conditions to create a tailor made solution which is transparent and fair to all stakeholders. Reducing systemic risk potential that the non-performing assets create in banks is probably the strongest economic rationale for supervision of any economic system. In that context all over the world capital adequacy has become a core instrument of effective supervision of banking system. But the lack of research in Nepali commercial banking sectors has further prompted to economic instability. This research proposes to study the variables behind non-performing assets and its implication in commercial banking through the comparison between EBL and RBB. Consequently, the researcher hopes in treading into new avenue of research and its make recommendations for the reform process to be initiated in the Nepali banking industry as apart of the liberalisation of the economy in general and the financial stability in particular. Methodology / Sources of Data Researching NPAs of commercial banks is a sensitive topic. Several parties contribute to the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“dynamicsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? of the situation. These parties are: Bank employees and their representative from portfolios of credit (loan) department. Perspective clients of consumer loan and commercial loan investment from EBL and RBB Post-graduate students of finance and investment from various universities Law professionals handling the cases of NPAs. Journalists active in featuring economic beat across different prominent newspapers and magazines. A comprehensive investigation of this topics should attempt to collect data from each of these parties. It is proposed that the following methods of data collection be deployed: A content analysis of literature produced by these commercial banks, particularly their investment literature. Much of this literature is prepared for public consumption and hence will be readily available. Interviews with a representative sample from each of the parties identified above. Resource constraints do not allow for national coverage, hence these interviews will be conducted in one region of the country, which will be selected on the basis of convenience for the researcher. This could well limit the generalisations that can be made from the data. The researcher will à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“poseà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? as a prospective client and will write a letter to each banks requesting guidance for loans. This raises ethical issues since a certain amount of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“deceptionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? is involved. However, it is felt that it is a legitimate approach and doesnà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t cause personal harm to any party. The researcher will dispatch questionnaire selecting and identifying representative information provider from each party who in turn will provide with necessary information for the research. Anticipated Outcomes This work is essentially a comparative analysis since the issuance of loans and the state of recovery of two commercial banks are being compared. For the comparison to be meaningful and objective it is essential that a standard framework be adopted. It is proposed to structure the data collection and also the comparison and analysis using a distribution framework of: Public Sector Units Large Industries Medium Industries Other non priority Sectors Agriculture Small scale industries Other Priority sectors Hence in simple terms the results of the project could be presented in the following dummy table: Borrowing Segment-wise NPA Gross NPA RBB EBL Amount Percentage of Total NPA Amount Percentage of Total NPA Public Sector Units Large Industries Medium Industries Other non priority Sectors Agriculture Small scale industry Other Priority sectors It is envisaged that this will provide a degree of originality because the application of a distribution framework to an investment relations issue is novel. On the basis of the comparison of the activities of the two banks some recommendations can be made regarding the relative success of investment initiatives in this context.