Thursday, June 11, 2020
The aim of this project is to assess the level of non-performing assets and its repercussions in overall financial stability of commercial bank in Nepal through the comparison between proper Nepali bank and the joint venture bank. The specific objectives are : To determine the extent to which commercial banks face potential financial instability because of non-performing assets. To identify the mechanisms by which commercial banks control non-performing assets. To identify successful and unsuccessful measures in relation to recover and mobilization of non-performing assets of commercial bank. To find out Whether or not Nepalese Commercial Banks are following rules and regulations of NRB (Nepal Rastra Bank) regarding their lending, especially to maintain the provision for NPA? To enumerate and examine the level of NPA to total assets, total lending and total deposit of these two commercial banks. To identify the internal and external factors affecting on the growth of NPA? To identify the effects of Non-Performing Assets on ROA and ROE of these two commercial banks. To identify which bank has high level of non- performing assets To make recommendations as to how commercial banks might improve their efforts in relation to minimization of non-performing assets. These objectives will be achieved by addressing the following research questions: Which bank, proper nepali bank or joint venture bank, is actively seeking to minimize risks of non-performing assets? When did non-performing assets start showing impacts in the bank? What resources do the banks devote to control non-performing assets? Who decides on this resource allocation? How do banks seek to control non-performing assets? Is non-performing asset increasing amongst banks? What is the degree of increment of non-performing asset in proper Nepali commercial bank and joint venture bank? What percentage of total assets and total lending is occupying by NPAs of Nepalese commercial banks? How does non-performing assets effects on return on total assets (ROA) and shareholdersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ equity (ROE). What are major internal factors, external factors and other main causes to growth of NPA? To compare the percentage of non-performing assets of these commercial banks in different time period. Which measure (or measures) in particular has been effective in curbing non-performing assets of commercial banks? What factors contribute to a successful management of non-performing assets? Are increased non-performing assets retaining provisions considered to be good news for all banks or only for particular banks? Do the valuation implications of non-performing assets vary across banks? The Context and Background of the Proposal: The proposal is to concentrate on two commercial banks of Nepal: Rastriya Banijya Bank (a proper Nepali bank) and Everest Bank Limited (a joint venture bank); RBB and EBL respectively in acronyms. These are the two main banks operating in the banking industry in the expanding economy of Nepal. Rastriya Banijya Bank (RBB) is fully government owned, and the largest commercial bank in Nepal. RBB was established on January 23, 1966 (2022 Magh 10 BS) under the RBB Act. Now, the bank is running under bank and financial institute act 2063. RBB has been contributing to socio-economic development of the country for the last four and half decades. The Bank has currently entered into 46 years of service. RBB provides various banking services to a wide range of customers;ÃâÃ they include elite to poor individuals, institutional customers, and the customersÃâÃ from industry / business communities. RBB has many correspondent arrangements with major international banks all over the world that facilitate trade finance, bank-originated personal funds transfers and interbank funds transfer. The bank has played crucial role for the development of financial sector i.e. bank, insurance companies through its promoterÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s role. As a second commercial bank of the country, the bank has been contributing in the trade, industry and agricultural sector of the country. The bank has also contributed in the hydropower sector. Health and Education sector are also benefitted through its disbursement. As a government owned bank the bank is also contributing towards achieving national goals as per the government directives. The bank has made significant contribution in the development of private sector either by loan disbursement orÃâÃ by active participation in the fairs organized by industrial and business communities. A leading commercial bank of Nepal established in the year 1994 in joint venture with Punjab National Bank, India, Everest Bank Limited (EBL) started its operation with a view and objective of extending professionalized and efficient banking services to various segments of the society. Punjab National Bank (PNB), EBLÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s joint venture partner (holding 20% equity in the bank) is the largest nationalized bank in India. With its presence virtually in all the important centres at Nepal, EBL offers a wide variety of banking services which include corporate and personal banking, industrial finance, agricultural finance, financing of trade and international banking. The large presence and vast resource base have helped the Bank to build strong links with trade and industry. These two banks make for an interesting comparison since they are both leading commercial banks with large number of clients, covering a diverse range of commercial sectors. They both share the bad news associated with increased provisions, preempted by loan default and increases in non-performing loans. The bad news in loan loss provisions is most likely to occur when fourth quarter audits correct under-provisioning relative to increases in non-performing loans during the first three quarters of the fiscal year which found the common victim in RBB and EBL. In contrast to EBL, the bad news stems from management exercising power over loan-loss provisions and their engagement in protection of larger numbers of defaulters in RBB. The disclosure of RBB as having more potential threats of increase in non-performing assets to EBL is hugely credited to the flexibility for efficient contracting provisions. At the time when economic activities are growing rapidly throughout the country, it is most uphill task for the banks to manage and curb non-performing assets. Moreover, political instability has resulted in more cases of commercial loans defaulting. Interestingly, consumer loans are hardly non-performing given to the rise of middleclass and service industry. But this trend differs in both EBL and RBB. This study purposes to underscore the importance of management of non-performing assets of RBB and EBL while comparing the provisions and their outcome in banking sector. Preliminary Literature Review Investment theory defines non-performing asset as Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âa debt obligation where the borrower has notÃâÃ paidÃâÃ anyÃâÃ previously agreed uponÃâÃ interest and principal repayments to the designated lender for an extended period of time.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬? The non-performing asset is therefore not yielding any income to the lender in the form of principal and interest payments. Non-performing asset has become the major problem in investment banking since the inception of banking service itself. Literature devoted to the cause and effect of non-performing assets of banks concentrates mainly over the consequence and overall impact on the systematic wellbeing of bank due to the rise of non-performing assets. In the article Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âDifferential Valuation Implications of Loan Loss Provisions across Banks and Fiscal QuartersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? Chi-Chun Liu(1997) concentrates over the impact of loan loss provisions in market: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âPrior research finds that, on average, the market reacts positively to loan loss provisions conditional on less discretionary information about loan default, such as non-performing loans and loan write-offsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? (133). LiuÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s finding holds across different model specifications and study periods, despite radical changes in the banking industry over time. Liu finds that loan loss provisions are good news only for banks with loan portfolios that contain a high proportion of loans for which loss provisions require judgment and discretion on a loan-by-loan basis (e.g., commercial loans) rather than using statistical methods (e.g., consumer loans). A substantial body of research sought to confirm managementÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s role regarding loan default. James M. WahlenÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s(1994) study in Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âThe Nature of Information in Commercial Bank Loan Loss DisclosuresÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? suggests that loan loss provisions are to be Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âmaintained at levels considered adequate to reflect managements expectations of future lossesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? because Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âmanagers have private information regarding default risks inherent in the loan portfolioÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? (455). Wahlen finds that managerÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s judgment is necessary in estimating the loan loss provision each period. Wahlen further contends, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âIt is prohibitively costly for investors and monitors to obtain all of managements information about the loan portfolio each period . . . [Thus] bank managers can exercise discretion over the timing of provisions for certain loan lossesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? (456). Wahlen examines the relations b etween unexpected loan loss provisions and both stock returns and changes in future cash flows, and the role of managers in handling non-performing assets, in his study. Similarly, Iftekhar Hasan and Stephen D. Smith (1997) have argued that traditional view in profitability of banking institutions does not comprehend recently developing market trends. The duo has empirically investigated the alternative hypothesis using overall profit measures: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âthe negative price-concentration relationship does not hold over the entire range of observed market concentrationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? (47). They have focused on the impact of concentration and efficiency measures using price data for individual products and services. Jackson (1992) suggests that any generalization of such statements since price-concentration measures may vary substantially across time periods. Recently, in a comprehensive study, Berger and Hannan (1993) found more support for the structure-conduct-performance hypothesis than for the relative-market-power and/or efficient structure hypothesis. While concentrating over the role of banking sector in fetching the great depression of 1930s in America, Adam B. Ashcraft(2005) analyses the implication of non-performing assets in overall macroeconomic scenario in the article Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âAre Banks Really Special? New Evidence from the FDIC-Induced Failure of Healthy Banks.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬? Ashcraft contends that severe contraction in banks results from uncontrolled lending. He writes: While there is some disagreement in the literature over the precise mechanism through which failure affects real activity it is hard to walk away without the conclusion that bank failures played an important macroeconomic role in the severity of the economic downturn. What are the possible mechanisms? The most direct effect is through the loss of real wealth by uninsured depositors and other creditors. Even in the absence of a wealth effect, however, the creditors of a failed bank lose liquidity while they wait for assets to be liquidated, which in turn affects real spending in the presence of borrowing constraints. (1712) Ashcraft observes that when a bank fails, some long-standing relationships with its customers are disrupted, if not destroyed. If customers are unable to replace these relationships with other lenders on equal terms, this contraction in the supply of bank credit has an effect on real activity. And finally, there is the threat of contagion, where the failure of one institution prompts a run on other banks, spreading the effect of failure throughout the economy. Literature related to non-performing assets and the Indian experience provides the glimpse of Asian economy and challenges of banking industry. Prashanth K Reddy(2002) makes a comparative study of Asian banking industry in Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âA comparative study of Non Performing Assets in India in the Global context similarities and dissimilarities, remedial measures.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬? Reddy stresses the importance of a sound understanding of the macro economic variables and systemic issues pertaining to banks and the economy for solving the NPA problem along with the criticality of a strong legal framework and legislative framework. Reddy contends: Concerns have been raised about their relevance to India. A significant percentage of the NPAs of the PSBÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s are in the priority sector. Loans in rural areas are difficult to collect and banks by virtue of their sheer reach are better placed to recover these loans. Lok Adalats and Debt Recovery Tribunals are other effective mechanism to handle this task. ARCs should focus on the larger borrowers. Further, there is a need for private sector and foreign participation in the ARC. Private parties will look to active resolution of the problem and not merely regard it as a book transaction. Moving NPAs to an ARC doesnt get rid of the problem. Actions and measures have to be taken to build investor confidence. (12) Reddy stresses on the need to analyze foreign experiences that must be utilized along with a clear understanding of the local conditions to create a tailor made solution which is transparent and fair to all stakeholders. Reducing systemic risk potential that the non-performing assets create in banks is probably the strongest economic rationale for supervision of any economic system. In that context all over the world capital adequacy has become a core instrument of effective supervision of banking system. But the lack of research in Nepali commercial banking sectors has further prompted to economic instability. This research proposes to study the variables behind non-performing assets and its implication in commercial banking through the comparison between EBL and RBB. Consequently, the researcher hopes in treading into new avenue of research and its make recommendations for the reform process to be initiated in the Nepali banking industry as apart of the liberalisation of the economy in general and the financial stability in particular. Methodology / Sources of Data Researching NPAs of commercial banks is a sensitive topic. Several parties contribute to the Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âdynamicsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? of the situation. These parties are: Bank employees and their representative from portfolios of credit (loan) department. Perspective clients of consumer loan and commercial loan investment from EBL and RBB Post-graduate students of finance and investment from various universities Law professionals handling the cases of NPAs. Journalists active in featuring economic beat across different prominent newspapers and magazines. A comprehensive investigation of this topics should attempt to collect data from each of these parties. It is proposed that the following methods of data collection be deployed: A content analysis of literature produced by these commercial banks, particularly their investment literature. Much of this literature is prepared for public consumption and hence will be readily available. Interviews with a representative sample from each of the parties identified above. Resource constraints do not allow for national coverage, hence these interviews will be conducted in one region of the country, which will be selected on the basis of convenience for the researcher. This could well limit the generalisations that can be made from the data. The researcher will Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âposeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? as a prospective client and will write a letter to each banks requesting guidance for loans. This raises ethical issues since a certain amount of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âdeceptionÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? is involved. However, it is felt that it is a legitimate approach and doesnÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢t cause personal harm to any party. The researcher will dispatch questionnaire selecting and identifying representative information provider from each party who in turn will provide with necessary information for the research. Anticipated Outcomes This work is essentially a comparative analysis since the issuance of loans and the state of recovery of two commercial banks are being compared. For the comparison to be meaningful and objective it is essential that a standard framework be adopted. It is proposed to structure the data collection and also the comparison and analysis using a distribution framework of: Public Sector Units Large Industries Medium Industries Other non priority Sectors Agriculture Small scale industries Other Priority sectors Hence in simple terms the results of the project could be presented in the following dummy table: Borrowing Segment-wise NPA Gross NPA RBB EBL Amount Percentage of Total NPA Amount Percentage of Total NPA Public Sector Units Large Industries Medium Industries Other non priority Sectors Agriculture Small scale industry Other Priority sectors It is envisaged that this will provide a degree of originality because the application of a distribution framework to an investment relations issue is novel. On the basis of the comparison of the activities of the two banks some recommendations can be made regarding the relative success of investment initiatives in this context.
Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Once every 12 years there is a unique opportunity to reinforce the bonds between Mexico and the United States, when our presidential election cycles coincide. For Mexico, the July 1 elections will be a crucial moment that will set the tone for our future and define the US-Mexico relationship for generations to come. Undoubtedly, one of the main concerns that has caused social unrest today is that of security. At this time, violence has made an impact in Mexico and threatens to escalate and surpass the US border. This challenge transcends my country and could have far-reaching consequences for Central and North American security. Unless we act now to solve these common issues, we are placing the future competitiveness and prosperity ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In the last decade we have seen dismal economic growth of less than 2 percent per year on average. This is the worst record for Mexico in 70 years, particularly shocking when compared to double-digit growth in other developing countries. We need to quickly move onto a path of sustained growth that will increase investor confidence and provide stability for an eager workforce. The next step in furthering our agenda is to reform the judiciary process. We have to fight impunity and corruption by expediting the judicial process. It is imperative to give individuals and companies confidence in our legal system, which is now slow, unorganized, and unable to deliver justice impartially. This can be accomplished through a more professional investigative service that increases the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to mete out justice, and by accelerating the switch to a system based on oral trials in order to have an efficient and transparent judiciary. Furthermore, we must professionalize our police forces. We require well trained and equipped police, capable of investigating proficiently and using information and intelligence to perform surgical strikes against the organized mafias, tackling their structures from the top down. It is very telling that over the past 12 years, the corruption perception index in Mexico has worsened from 3.3 to 3 according to Transparency International. In order to fight corruption, we need to unify the
Sunday, May 17, 2020
The source of racism and white supremacy is fear of genetic annihilation. Their existence is a result of genetic mutation and environmental adaptation according to scholars and scientist of various fields. Albinism is a genetic imperfection that prohibits the production of melanin, the genetic content that gives color to eyes, skin and hair. Legendary scholar, author and psychiatrist, Dr. Frances Cress Welsing argues that African albinos, rejected by their parents, alienated from their communities and sensitive to the African sun, were forced to migrate northward to Europe. This as a consequence resulted in inbreeding amongst the exiles led to the birth of the White or European race. Racism and white supremacy functions both on a microcosmic and macrocosmic level. Similar to a massive bureaucracy, white dominion is wielded by a web of wealthy, influential and powerful individuals and institutions conjoined together through the common objective of subjugating the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s people of color, especially Blacks, in order to ensure white genetic survival. As a collective race, Europeans are a numerical and statistical overwhelming minority in the world, contributing to less than ten percent of the worlds population. This fear of white genetic annihilation is also responsible for genocidal campaigns against people of color, Blacks in particular, because we hold the dominant genetic material to eradicate their recessive genes if race mixing ensued. In closing the problem of the 20thShow MoreRelatedRace Theory And The Statistical Discrimination Theory1086 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmodern world that is generally accepted by the public is different groups of people that share the same genetic divergences that are observable (Phenotype) (wiki). The most prominent example is the classification system use by the U.S Government: White (Caucasoid); Black (Congoid); Asian (Mongoloid); Native and Hispanic. This system adheres the modern race concept as all of the classification s are based on phenotypes of different people. Some older concepts of race are based on differences in ethnicityRead More Expanding Feminist Activism Essay1263 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthink the struggle for womens rights. The idea sounds unified in saying and one would assume most women were involved. For a long time the womens movement applied to just white upper class females. I found a source on extremist women, which focused on the powerful ideas of white supremacy. This article was geared toward white women, and the goal trying to be achieved was equal status as men in the work place, and no rights for minorities. Not surprisingly many of these participants were in the KuRead MoreThis is England936 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagespolitically, and ethically different from that of my own. It was interesting to see a story unfold through the perspective of a young boy named Shaun. The director showed ShaunÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences dealing with serious issues England was facing at the time such as racism, gangs, immigration, and unemployment. Losing his father at an early age, Shaun lacked an older figure to guide him towards the right path which ultimately causes him to join a gang called the Skinheads. Based on the movie, gangs seem to be one ofRead MoreAmerican History X : Tony Kaye Essay1651 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesVinyard, and his attempt to stop his younger brother- Danny Vinyard from getting involved in the white supremacy gangs of Los Angeles. The film is symbolic of aspects of European and American history; combining implications of both Nazi Germany and the reign of Adolf Hitler, with past and present US Neo-Nazism. American History X deals with controversial racial issues such as white supremacy and white privilege, the discrimination against people of colour, eurocentrism and the power of whiteness,Read MoreThe Heart Of The Sea By Nathaniel Philbrick951 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesships and were treated not equally. Finally, they were taken for their cheap and hard labor in a dangerous, unrewarding industry. Using internet sources and the novel, In The Heart of The Sea, by Nathaniel Philbrick, African Americans in the whaling industry had low status within crews and faced harsh working conditions as well as discrimination and racism. African Americans in the whaling industry did not receive high positions on boats. 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The people of the United States new very well that they had to treat African Americans with respect due to the Declaration of Independence, but words on a piece of paper did not seem to do much when African Americans were discriminatedRead MoreKey Concepts To Engage With Whiteness.This Section Of The1857 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pageswhiteness; race, racism, prejudice and discrimination, and white privilege and white supremacy. Race, Racism, Prejudice and Discrimination Sensoy DiAngelo (2014) define race as a complex socially constructed system of categories of people based on phenotype with boundaries that can change over time. They describe race asÃ¢â¬ one of the most charged issues in society due to pervasive miseducation, lack of productive languageÃ¢â¬ (p. 97). Racism occurs when one racial group, such as whites, dominatesRead MoreThe Middle Age African American Man1285 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesgovernment assistance. This same manÃ¢â¬â¢s treatment could be compared to man living in a southern state at the height of Jim Crow.3 Jim Crow was a practice enforced by laws in the United States (U.S.) enacted between 1874 Ã¢â¬â 1975 to keep black and white races apart. The goal of these laws was to create Ã¢â¬Å"separate but equalÃ¢â¬ treatment, but the result produced inferior treatment and facilities for African-Americans. Education was segregated as well as public facilities. The U.S. military was segregated
Friday, May 15, 2020
In William Faulkners A Rose for Emily, a woman of noble origin, Emily Grierson, finds herself alone isolated in a small town in the Old South. The isolation is not only a result of the townspeoples perception of Emilys status in the community, but also as a result of their pity towards her. Emily, herself, is also to blame for the separation she experiences from the rest of the town. This ominous alienation that some individuals encounter can sometimes lead to horrible, and even, disgusting behavior, as in Emilys case. In A Rose for Emily, Faulkner shows how the alienation felt by Emily Grierson caused by the townspeople, the death of her father, and her own self, enables her to commit an act of grotesqueness. Emilys feelingÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Although Homer Baron was said to have liked men and was considered not a marrying man, he was the closest person Emily could call a friend. (5) Faulkner does not clarify exactly how Mr. Baron died. The reader is left wondering if it was indeed Emily herself that killed him with the arsenic she purchased from the drugstore, or if his death was due to another cause. Either way, the tragedy of his death was enough to send Emily deeper into her alienated thoughts and further into her own secluded madness. A Rose for Emily reveals how an otherwise, ordinary individual can grow increasingly separated from the social world around them, and become subsequently alienated from logical thought and reasonable actions. Due to the standoffishness of the townspeople and Emilys superior than thou attitude, it was easy for her to fall subject to the isolated, lonely feelings that led her to commit the otherwise grotesque act of love andShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of A Rose For Emily Essay1643 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMatthew M. Courchaine Professor Teresa Trevathan English 123 30 November 2016 On Being An Outcast: Emily As Manifesting Thematic Alienation in FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ I. Introduction Being taught in high schools and universities all across the nation, William FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s short story Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ has achieved a great deal of both academic and mainstream respect in the United States. In being arguably one of FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s strongest stories, and since Faulkner himself has assumed the positionRead MoreWilliam Faulkner Symbolism Analysis1032 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesand actions of the people of Jefferson Country, in particular, Emily Grierson; age, disuse, and decay are prevalent motifs used to elaborate on FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s symbolism. The Grierson house is a monument to the elegance of the Old South; the only monument remaining in Jefferson County. Ã¢â¬Å"Only Miss EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s house was left, lifting its stubborn and coquettish decay above the cotton wagons and gasoline pumpsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Over the many decades the Grierson house has slowly begun to age and wither, yet the people of JeffersonRead MoreWilliam Faulkner s A Rose For Emily1427 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfeel animosity towards that makes Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ so page-turning. The antagonist, Emily Grierson, is a pretty mysterious woman. Her father dies, she is left with almost nothing, she meets a man, and then she stops leaving her house. In literature, the tone is the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude towards his/her subject. Additionally, the style of a short story is the way the writer structures the plot and the manner that it is conveyed. In Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ , it is almost impossible to truly look into theRead MoreA Rose For Emily By William Faulkner1202 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages In William FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s short story, Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose For EmilyÃ¢â¬ , there are a few themes and symbols that are the most significant. The main character, Emily Grierson, is used to display the struggle against change while trying to keep old traditions alive. EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s house is a perfect symbol of old traditions. The theme of death is also displayed, as death seems to just follow Emily throughout her life. At the end of the short story, something as simple as a piece of long, gray hair becomes a huge symbol ofRead MoreEssay on Analysis of A Rose For Emily609 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesA Rose for Emily is set in a small southern town, in which EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s cottage is seen as Ã¢â¬Å"an eyesore among eyesoresÃ¢â¬ . This metaphor also describes Emily who is seen as Ã¢â¬Å"a body long submerged in motionless water.Ã¢â¬ In the story, written by William Faulkner, this ladyÃ¢â¬â¢s life is shown through the eyes of the town. Miss Emily Grierson is a peculiar character, withdraw n from society with symptoms indicating mental illness. Her influence on the community was significant, though she was a very independent characterRead MoreEssay about A Withering Rose inWilliam FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s, A Rose For Emily540 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesWilliam FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s, A Rose For Emily, encompasses various themes, but the theme most prevalent in the short story is decay. Time waits for no one, and for Miss Emily Grierson, time left her behind. A Rose For Emily depicts the motionless decay of a woman stuck in time, as her concept of reality is lost. Throughout the story Faulkner characterizes Emily and the atmosphere around her as addled and withered. In the short story, A Rose For Emily, by William Faulkner, a woman is ultimately overcome byRead MoreThe Gothic Setting Of Miss Emily1307 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof Miss Emily The story, Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for Emily,Ã¢â¬ written by William Faulkner in 1930, shows the gothic elements of how isolation influences the mind. The main character is Emily Grierson whose mental state of mind focuses on her home and town. There is a dark setting in this story that highlights the impact of how isolation prohibits one from being mentally healthy. Miss Emily s home appearance is desolate, rugged, and dingy which demonstrates her mindset. Similar to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, Miss Emily is resistantRead MoreCharacteristics Of Southern Gothic Literature1694 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesin the Southern parts of the United States. Characteristics of Southern Gothic include the Ã¢â¬Å"presence of irrational, horrific, and transgressive thoughts, desires and impulses; grotesque characters; dark humor, and an overall angst-ridden sense of alienationÃ¢â¬ (Oxford Literature). These dark characteristics come as no surprise given the fact that this literature developed in the wake of The Civil War. After their defeat, the South was devastated both socially and economically through their loss of theRead MoreSetting Analysis of the Story a Rose for Emily1007 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAn analysis of the setting of Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ by William FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s William Faulkner is one of the greatest writers of the twentieth century. Although he was born in New Albany, Mississippi in 1897 he moved to Oxford, Mississippi before his fifth birthday. Faulkner belonged to a once-wealthy family of former plantation owners (eNotes.com, Inc., 2012). He spent his boyhood hunting and fishing in and around Lafayette County (eNotes.com, Inc., 2012). William Faulkner based most of his storiesRead MoreA Rose for Emily Essay - Introduction: Plot Summary3300 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesA. Introduction Plot summary This story about a woman, who is called Emily. she came from a rich family .SheÃ¢â¬â¢s elegant woman ,but she is strange woman in the world . so anyone or people in her village could not understand about her. She doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have mother but she only had a father. They lived in big house in a little village. Her father didnÃ¢â¬â¢t married again so he needed and love Emily very much. And didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want anyone take away her from him. But she wanted to have boy friends, because she always
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain is a book about a boy who travels down the river with a runaway slave. Twain uses these two characters to poke fun at society. They go through many trials, tribulations, and tests of their friendship and loyalty. Huck Finn, the protagonist, uses his instinct to get himself and his slave friend Jim through many a pickle. In the book, there are examples of civilized, primitive, and natural man. Civilized man is shown in the book. The widows are a good example. They do everything proper and go to church regularly. They also try to civilize Huck, but he doesnt want any part of it. The widows treat their slaves well, showing class. The judge is also civilized. From the eyes of common decency, his decisionÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦There is also natural man in the book. There are good examples of natural behavior in the book. Huck used instinct a lot. He almost turned Jim in because society told him runaway slaves are criminals, but his natural instinct saw Jim as a friend who needed help. Jim then did the same when he had a difficult choice to make. He could either book it to Cairo, or take Huck to a doctor. He too saw a friend in need and helped Huck out. Again, Twain uses satire to prove a point. In the beginning of the book, Huck Finn appears to be nothing more than a simple, uneducated boy who goes on crazy adventures. At the end of the book, however, you can see that he uses his natural instinct to help him out. Although society has told him that slaves are nothing more than objects, he comes to know and treat Jim as a friend and person. He had numerous opportunities to turn him in, but didnt. In contrast, the seemingly civilized people turn out to be the ones who let society tell them whats right and whats wrong, instead of going with their heart like Huck did. In the book, civilized, primitive, and natural man are all on display. Mark Twain wanted to show all three of these personality types, because everyone can relate to all of them. When I first read the book, or some of theShow MoreRelatedThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn s Social Commentary On Slavery1368 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMark TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s Social Commentary on Slavery in Huckleberry Finn Huckleberry Finn, written by Mark Twain over seven years, is considered one of the best American masterpieces ever published, and a very socially active novel. Through the plot and development of the main characters, Twain discussed the paradox of slavery in a free country, as well as his abolitionist beliefs on slavery. Throughout his life, he witnessed slavery in the United States as a whole and its impact on his life, which was transferredRead MoreMark Twain s Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn1562 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMark Twain (Samuel Langhorne Clemens) Introduction Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835- April 21, 1910), commonly known as Mark Twain was an American writer whose works act as social commentary on issues including racism, poverty and class distinctions. His most distinguished novels, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876) and its sequel, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885) convey the vanquished way of life in the pre-Civil War Mississippi Valley and life on the river. His unpretentious, colloquialRead MoreAnalysis Of Mark Twain s Works Made A Huge Impact On Readers And Literary Critics1288 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages2/26/17 P:2 Outline Mark TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s works made a huge impact on readers and literary critics. His writing occurred during both the romantic and realist time eras in American Literature. He has simple, seemingly artless narrators and an understated style leads readers to arrive at the social commentary of his narratives on their own. Mark TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s writing influenced society because he created a new perspective on life with the views pointed out in his books. The distinctive trait of Twain s was hisRead MoreRespect The Elderly By Mark Twain1565 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe elderly. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is one hundred and thirty years old, yet unfailingly manages to fascinate, infuriate, and inspire its readership. The novel rests on many a bookshelf and regularly appears on lists of literary legends- though it is equally likely to top a list of controversial and profane works. Certainly, there is no other book in the oeuvre of Mark Twain that commands attention more deservedly than Huckleberry Finn. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is the decidedRead MoreAn Analysis of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn3099 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesÃ¯ » ¿HUCKLEBERRY FINN The adventures of Huckleberry Finn is one of the finest works of Mark Twain and probably the most controversial too. This is because it is by no means an ordinary story of Huckleberrys adventures; it is essentially a social commentary on the slavery and post civil war era in the United States. T. S. Eliot in 1950 acknowledged the book as, Ã ¦the only one of Mark Twains various books which can be called a masterpiece. I do not suggest that it is his only book of permanent interest;Read More TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s Huckleberry Finn and KerouacÃ¢â¬â¢s On the Road Ã¢â¬â The River and the Road3035 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesTwainÃ¢â¬â¢s Huckleberry Finn and KerouacÃ¢â¬â¢s On the Road Ã¢â¬â The River and the Road One element that separates a good novel from a great novel is its enduring effects on society. A great novel transcends time; it changes and mirrors the consciousness of a civilization. One such novel is Mark TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. For the past one hundred and fifteen years, it has remained in print and has been one of the most widely studied texts in high schools and colleges. According to Lionel TrillingRead MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain2083 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesSatire in Huckleberry Finn In the novel Ã¢â¬Å"The Adventures of Huckleberry FinnÃ¢â¬ by Mark Twain, we are told a story about a young boy and his slave companionÃ¢â¬â¢s journey down the Mississippi River and all of their encounters with other characters. Twain constructed a beautiful narrative on how young Huck Finn, the protagonist in the story, learns about the world and from other adult characters, how he is shaped into his own person. At the time this book was made however, this novel provided serious socialRead MoreHuck Finn1257 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHuck Finn Essay: Twain and Social Criticism Feuds, Frauds, and Fools: Huck Finn and Twains Critique of the Human Race Mark TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s famous realist novel, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, is a masterpiece of social criticism and analysis. The author skillfully depicts a variety of human failings and foibles, personified in the characters of everyday people and groups. Twain appears to be satirizing and criticizing the old South, but underneath his humorous portrait of Southern social issuesRead MoreHow Mark Twain Influenced American Literature1641 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHow Mark Twain Influenced American Literature When you think of the start of American Literature, what comes to your mind? Authors such as Walt Whitman, Ernest Hemmingway, Emily Dickinson, Charles Dickens, and Mark Twain stick out in our minds. They were the face of post-civil war and social realism poetry. Today we will take a closer look at Mark Twain, who was also known as the Ã¢â¬Å"FatherÃ¢â¬ of American Literature. His work has survived more than 100 years after his death. Mark Twain was born inRead MoreSatire : Satire And Satire1498 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesstupidity or vices, particularly in the context of contemporary politics and other topical issues. It seems to be especially prevalent in the current climate of America, from South Park to the Onion one never has to go far to get entertaining commentary on the social or political happenings of the day. Satire is not a new literary device and satirical works have been documented in societies as ancient as the early Egyptian empire. It has made regular appearances in works of literature ever since. Despite
How far do you agree that the brutality of the Bolsheviks was the main reason why they remained in power in the years 1917Ã¢â¬â24? This essay shall address the issue of how the far the brutality of Bolshevik Regime ensured the maintaining of itÃ¢â¬â¢s power between the years of 1917-24. This essay shall explore topics concerning the Ã¢â¬ËDictatorship Of The ProletariatÃ¢â¬â¢, The Cheka, War Communism, The Red Terror and other potential reasons for the Bolsheviks remaining in power. This essay shall also explore the various views put forth by various Historians such as Robert Conquest and Richard Pipes. The Dictatorship of the Proletariat was an idea advocated by Lenin throughout the course of the initial years of the Bolshevik Regime. The idea stemmedÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The Russian Civil War (1917-1923) saw millions of deaths and millions further starved. The Bolsheviks saw the importance of maintaining their power in the cities in order to maintain power over the country itself. To keep the people happy thus, they realised they needed to keep the people fed. This led top the eventual inception of War Communism. An economic/agricultural policy incorporated by War Communism was known as Prodrazvyorstka Ã¢â¬â requisition of agricultural surpluses from peasants in excess of absolute minimum for centralized distribution among the remaining population. This meant that the Bolsheviks could seize whatever food they needed from the countryside towns and villages and distribute it amongst the urban population in cities such as Petrograd and Moscow. The peasants in the countryside did not, however, always co-operate with the Bolshevik authorities when it came to handing over their grain. In 1921, the sailors at Kronstadt revolted in direct response to slipping living standards and the starvation of people across the country. Soon after the Bolsheviks led an army 10,000 strong to crush the rebellion, one the revolutionaries were defeated around 1,200 to 2,168 were executed in the days following the revolt. The coupling of the starvation brought about by War Communism and the crushing of revolts following War Commusism showed the Bolshevik Regime toShow MoreRelatedOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 Pagesdemarcate historical epochs, the twentieth century does not appear to be a very coherent unit. The beginnings and ends of what we choose to call centuries are almost invariably years of little significance. But there is little agreement over when the twentieth century c.e. arrived, and there were several points both before the year 2000 (the collapse of the Soviet Union, the reunification of Germany, the surge of globalization from the mid-1990s) and afterward (9/11, or the global recession of 2008)
There are many cinematic techniques that help a movie become entertaining. So everyone uses them. Different elements can create many different moods during a movie and every director has a different way of making a movie. Tim Burton uses lighting and different angles to contrast fantasy with reality and show the strength of all his different characters. Tim Burton uses lighting to show fantasy and reality in his movies. In the film Charlie and the Chocolate Factory high key lighting represents fantasy. The lighting is used in Willy WonkaÃ¢â¬â¢s factory showing that it is every kids dream to visit it. Although it is his fantasy, Charlie knows that a fantasy is all it ever will be. To represent this low key lighting is used in CharlieÃ¢â¬â¢s home to show that the reality of his life is there living in poverty. This pattern continues in the cult classic Edward Scissorhands. We will write a custom essay sample on Tim Burton or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The town that Edward is welcomed into is in high lighting to signify that it is the life that he never had. He wants to be accepted and loved and this is the place that his wish comes true. Unfortunately, we know that his fantasy is unrealistic and there is no way he can live normally. His sad life he must live is inside an empty mansion, which is shot in low lighting signifying the lonely reality of his home. Lighting gives you an idea of what is real and what is only a fantasy. Tim Burton also uses angles to show the power level of each character. A good example is in the movie Big Fish during the conversation between Edward and Karl. A lot of different angles are used between them. A low angle is used on Edward showing that he is small and weak. The low angle makes him look as though he is pathetic and you can look down upon him. On the other hand, Karl is shot using a high angle making him look larger and more powerful then what he already is. This angle shows that he is Edward is superior. Another example is in the movie Edward Scissorhands. During the scene where Edward is making an ice sculpture the character of Kim is shot in a high angle. This signifies that she is truly happy and on top of the world. It shows that at the moment she feels nothing can bring her down. Many authors have different styles but to me Tim BurtonÃ¢â¬â¢s style is the greatest. His movies show reality and fantasy with light angles. Something that is very difficult, was accomplished by this great author.